Oral, dental and maxillofacial surgery: it is a branch of dentistry that undertakes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of various diseases affecting these regions. In this chapter, the treatment of diseases of the soft and hard tissues in the mouth and jaw region, which are hereditary or caused by various factors such as infection and trauma, are planned. With these treatments, the related tissue is made healthy and the aesthetic and functional problems it causes are eliminated.
Treatment of genetically transmitted or subsequently formed pathological problems in the mouth and jaw area is within the scope of oral, dental and maxillofacial surgery. In this area, many procedures such as tooth extraction, impacted tooth operations, arrangement of the jawbone, arrangement of soft tissues, implant applications, detection and treatment of abscess, cyst or tumors in the relevant regions can be applied. In addition to these processes, it is of great importance in diagnosing systemic diseases that show symptoms in the mouth and jaw region and in directing them to the relevant area when necessary.
In cases where the tooth is severely damaged by various factors such as caries or trauma and threatens the surrounding tissues, it may not be possible to restore the health of the tooth by applying a different treatment method. In this case, extraction is performed to preserve the health of the tissues around the tooth. In addition, teeth embedded in the jawbone can become a threat to the surrounding tissues. Particularly, wisdom teeth can often remain embedded in the jawbone and cause disorders in the tooth sequence, destruction of adjacent teeth, and infection in the surrounding bone and soft tissue. If the impacted teeth do not damage the mouth, teeth and jaw structure, they can be maintained and positioned with the help of orthodontic treatments. However, if there is a situation that will be harmful to the surrounding tissues, surgical extraction of these teeth is planned under local anesthesia.
Diseases occurring in the soft tissues in the mouth area are also included in the scope of oral, dental and maxillofacial surgery. Lesions in this area or hereditary problems such as cleft lip can be treated under local anesthesia. In addition to these procedures, soft tissue adjustments can be made in order to increase the success of the treatment and support the aesthetic appearance before dental prosthesis construction or implant applications.
Loss, deformities and fractures of the jawbone due to illness or accidents; depending on the level of deformation, it can be treated under local anesthesia or general anesthesia. In addition, problems such as hereditary deformities, lower and upper jaw mismatches can be regulated with various applications. This editing process is called orthognathic surgery. Treatment of bone necrosis that may occur in the jaw bones due to drugs and radiotherapy in cancer treatment is also treated within the scope of oral, dental and maxillofacial surgery.
In order to make the missing teeth in various regions most similar to the natural tooth form, the areas where there are gaps due to deficiency can be treated with implant applications. In this treatment, the artificial tooth root prepared with a special material is placed in the jawbone and serves as the basis of the prosthesis to be made in the area.
Abscess and cysts in the mouth, teeth and jaw area. It causes the destruction of the surrounding tissues, causing the loss of teeth and the weakening of the jaw bones. If the treatment is not provided for a long time, since the severity of these effects will increase, great aesthetic and functional losses may occur, and fracture can be observed even as a result of minimal traumas in the jawbone. With abscess and cyst treatments, harmful tissues can be completely removed from the environment, and tissue health can be restored by keeping them under control with follow-ups.